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An introduction to poroide fungi

3: Taxonomy

As mentioned briefly in the introduc­tion, we have adopted a somewhat conservative approch  to delimitation of genera. 

DNA sequencing has shown that some genera, previously assumed to be uniform, include species with different phylogenetic backgrounds. Since this book is a manual for identification of species rather than a scientific study we have kept broadly defined genera like Phellinus, Inonotus and Oligoporus. 

We have probably not yet seen the true picture of the phylogeny of these complex genera since many tropical species have not yet been sequenced, and concepts based on a handful of European specimens will probably be shown to be too simple. 

Some genera, such as Ceriporia, Ceriporiopsis and Diplomitoporus, based on resupinate basidiocarps have long been accepted as “dumping” grounds for seemingly related species which were originally assigned to, or described in, these genera based on a common set of characters. 

In the future most such genera will probably be split into smaller more phylogenetically based genera – this in the long run will make it rather difficult to make generic keys, because in many cases they will have to go down to species level. We would not be surprised if, over time, it will emerge that two systems for classification are used, one of the type used in the book, and one based on small and more coherent entities based on DNA sequencing.

In the end we are confronted with the old and much debated question: What is a genus and for what purpose do we use the concept? Systematics is a subjective science and there will probably never be a consensus on just how different two taxa have to be before they are called a species or just considered a subspecies, form or variety and often classification at this level will be simply a matter of personal taste. 

Since we have (as stated) used a pragmatic and conservative generic concept it may prove useful, for those who prefer smaller and monophyletic genera, to provide a list of genera (below) not ued here, but described on the basis of species that occur in Europe. The type species is given in parenthesis.

Genera not adopted here although their type species occur in Europe

Amyloporia Singer, Mycologia 36:68, 1944 (Polyporus calceus (Fr.) Schwein. = Polyporus xanthus Fr.).
Apoxona Donk, Taxon 18:666, 1969 (Hexagonia nitida Durieu & Mont.).
Aurantiporus Murrill, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 39:487, 1905 (Polyporus pilotae Schwein. = Polyporus croceus Pers.:Fr.). 
Buglossoporus Kotl. & Pouzar, Česká Mykol. 20:82, 1968 (Polyporus quercinus Fr.).
Cartilosoma Kotl. & Pouzar, Česká Mykol. 12:101,1958 (Trametes subsinuosa Bres. = Polyporus ramentaceus Berk. & Broome).
Cladomeris Quél., Enchir. Fung. p. 167, 1886 (Polyporus umbellatus Fr.). 
Coriolus Quél., Enchir. Fung. P. 175, 1886 (Polyporus lutescens Pers. = Polyporus hirsutus Wulf.:Fr.). 
Dendropolyporus (Pouzar) Jülich, Bibl. Mycol. 85:397, 1981 (Polyporus umbellatus Fr.).
Erastia Niemelä & Kinnunen, Karstenia 45:76, 2005 (Polyporus salmonicolor Berk. & M. A. Curtis).
Fibroporia Parmasto, Consp. Syst. Cort., p. 176, 1968 (Polyporus vaillantii Fr.).
Frantisekia Spirin & Zmitr., Czech Mykol. 59: 142, 2007 (Poria fissiliformis Pilát).
Fuscoporia Murrill, N. Amer. Flora 9:6, 1907 (Polyporus ferruginosus Schrad.:Fr.).
Gelatoporia Niemelä, Karstenia 25:22, 1985 (Poria subvermispora Pilát).
Griseoporia Ginns, Mycotaxon 20:559, 1984 (Hexagonia carbonaria Berk. & M. A. Curtis).
Inocutis Fiasson & Niemelä, Karstenia 24:24, 1984 (Polyporus rheades Pers.).
Inoderma P. Karst., Meddeland. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 5:39, 1880 (Polyporus radiatus Sowerby:Fr). 
Inonotopsis Parmasto, Folia Crypt. Eston. 2:12, 1973 (Polyporus subiculosus Peck).
Irpiciporus Murrill, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 32:471, 1905 (Irpex mollis Berk. & M. A. Curtis = Hydnum pachyodon Pers.).
Lentus Torr., Broteria, Sér. Bot., 18:121, 1920 (Polyporus brumalis Pers.:Fr.).
Leptoporellus Spirin, Mycena 1:69, 2001 ( Polyporus kmetii Bres.).
Leucofomes Kotl. & Pouzar, Česká Mykol.11:157, 1957 (Polyporus ulmarius Sowerby:Fr.).
Leucoporus Quél., Enchir. Fung. p. 165, 1886 (Polyporus ciliatus Fr.).
Melanopus Pat., Hymenomyc. Europ. (Paris) p. 137, 1887 (Boletus squamosus Huds.). 
Ochroporus J. Schröt., Krypt.-Fl. Schlesien 3:483, 1888 (Polyporus contiguus Pers.:Fr.). 
Onnia P. Karst., Bidrag. Kännedom Finlands Natur Folk 48:36, 1889 (Polyporus circinatus Fr.).
Osteina Donk, Schweiz. Z. Pilzk. 44: 86, 1966 (Polyporus obductus Berk.). 
Phaeocoriolellus Kotl. & Pouzar, Česká Mykol. 11:162, 1957 (Daedalea trabea Pers.:Fr.).
Phaeoporus J. Schröt., Krypt.- Fl. Schlesien 3:489, 1888 (Polyporus obliquus Pers.:Fr.).
Podoporia P. Karst., Hedwigia 31:297, 1892 (Podoporia confluens P. Karst = Polyporus cerifluus Berk & M. A. Curtis).
Porodaedalea Murrill, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 32:367, 1905 (Polyporus pini Pers.).
Porpomyces Jülich, Persoonia 11:425, 1982 (Polyporus mucidus Pers.).
Pouzaroporia Vampola, Czech Mykol. 46:59, 1992 (Poria subrufa Ellis & Dearn).
Pseudotrametes Singer, Mycologia 36:68, 1944 (Polyporus gibbosus Pers.:Fr.).
Rhodofomes Kotl. & Pouzar, Česká Mykol. 44:235, 1990 (Polyporus roseus Alb. & Schwein.:Fr.).
Rhodonia Niemelä & K.-H. Larss., Karstenia 45:79, 2005 (Polyporus placentus Fr.).
Riopa D. A. Reid, Rev. Mycol. 33:244, 1968 (Riopa davidii D. A. Reid. = Poria camaresiana Bourdot & Galzin).
Strangulidium Pouzar, Česká Mykol. 21:206, 1967 (Polyporus sericeomollis Romell).
Trametella Pinto-Lopes, Mem. Soc. Broteriana 8:164, 1952, (Trametes hispida Bagl. = Polyporus gallicus Fr.).
Trametopsis Tomšovský, Czech Mykol. 60:7, 2008 (Polyporus cervinus Schwein.).

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